Marine Ecosystems and Management - Vol. 6, No. 6 - June - July 2013 Integrated land-and-sea management: Examining three cases where marine practitioners are looking upstream

Marine Ecosystems and Management
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“Coastal systems are linked to upland areas, just as they are to offshore areas. We can think of the connections among systems as two sides of the same coin. On one side, the connections are positive: with land, freshwater, and offshore marine systems delivering critical nutrients, biota, sediments for land accretion, and the physical space to allow passage between ecosystems. On the other side, the connections can be negative, as when upland areas deliver various human-caused stresses to coastal systems — like excessive nutrients from agriculture, sediments that smother nearshore biota, toxins, etc".